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Creative Industry Issue as an Opportunity in Creating Better Quality Advertising in Indonesia
Advertising is marketing persuasive messages of products or services towards potential customers, the process of which encounters certain social and cultural system. Today’s globalization generates intercultural mix through global hegemonic process among dominating cultures; and our culture reflected by advertising industry at best serves as a sub-culture. Globalization will inflict various events that drive community’s depreciation towards national creative advertising existence especially in Indonesia.
Multinational advertising affiliation system with its global stereotypes infects the degradation of Indonesia’s creative advertising. On one side, those companies create standards that make less divergence in creativity in advertising design process, and, on the other, they create culture shock.
Many academic institutions and advertising agencies’ various attempts in creating advertising with cultural flavor sometimes must cope with networks and conglomeration capitals of multinational advertising agencies. Cultural assets as the core in advertising creative ideas are not fully functioned to generate creative ads that immerse Indonesian people because of lack of local taste.
This paper tries to depict the above dilemmas that cope with Indonesia’s advertising industry. In turn, it presents alternative solution for better creative industry development especially advertising industry in Indonesia which focuses on human capital aspect. It may give a chance to uplift the quality of creativity in crafting future advertising in Indonesia.
Keywords: creative advertising, Indonesia’s ads, creative industry.
The phenomenon of globalization, though a little outdated, remains a hot topic. In the beginning, globalization dealt with the possibility of the disappearance of borders between countries in the context of trade. That discussion gave rise to economic globalization. The effects now can be felt in all aspects of life including political, social, and cultural ones. Globalization concerns the phenomenon of the shrinking of the globe and increased awareness of the world and its issues. In other words, it refers to the global connection and understanding of it. The shrinking of the world can be seen and understood in the context of modern institutions, while the increased awareness of the world can be seen in the context of culture . Even in this context the economic, political, and social dimensions can globalize if all the three are institutionalized. In other words, the trade of the three occurs if they have in themselves reached the aspect of meaning in a symbolic way .
Culture is comprised of meanings and practices of common people. It is daily life experience: various discourses, practices, and meanings for all people in their life. These meanings and practices are experienced not in the course that we have created although we strive to give our life a form in a creative way. Culture does not operate free of life material condition .
Today we live in an age of free information. Information comes from various countries, penetrating our aspects of life through all kinds of media. In that condition, culture is not anymore the monopoly of its community, but a blend of cultures of various communities. The result is that there is confusion over dualism between upholding own nation character and adapting totally to the phenomenon of globalization.
The condition of Indonesia’s advertising is also in this kind of confusion. Affiliation between national and multinational advertising agencies, which now widely prevails, contradicts the government’s intention to utilize the country’s resources for advertising products broadcast by various broadcasting institutions. Advertising, despite originally serving to deliver commercial messages, in this age of information now is considered not effective anymore to draw the audience’s attention if it does not utilize creativity. Creative ideas in advertising basically serves to bear the message of trade, which at a certain level may affect the community’s behaviors. Creativity in advertising ideas makes use of cultural values considered able to draw attention. This way advertising is part of mass culture and is placed as a popular culture in this hybrid contemporary era. Now advertising creative ideas have adopted various norms from different parts of the world considered affective to persuade the audience to purchase a certain commodity product. Does this indicate that our advertising has achieved a progress equal to that of other countries due to the use of the world’s hybrid culture? Or is it the other way around: our advertising is not really ours because it’s somebody else’s? These 2 pieces of doubt have to be discussed in depth in order that some solution can be formulated and proposed. Can the discourse on creative industry give a chance to the advertising to get out of the doubt?
2. ILLUSTRATION: PORTRAIT OF INDONESIA’S ADVERTISING
The development of Indonesia’s advertising in this globalization era cannot be separated from the world’s advertising that intends to penetrate countries’ territorial borders. This intention rises due to the phenomenon of world trade that also tends to globalize. The globalization of advertising was started again after World War 2 by some advertising companies based in America and England after its decline during the period 1920 – 1950 due to the 2 world wars. Long before that, J. Walter Thomson , who had an advertising company based in America, attempted to make the company the first to ever expand its business abroad; and he then opened a branch in London in 1899. Now, according to the record of advertising from various sources, America’s advertising companies have almost always led multinational advertising companies. And it is proven that 5 out of 10 World’s biggest advertising companies belong to America.
Now, in Indonesia, almost all 10 big-rated advertising companies (in terms of media spending) are affiliated with multinational advertising companies. This makes Indonesia’s advertising and its progress a sub-system of the world’s advertising. Affiliation system causes Indonesia’s advertising in the globalization era to move and look the same as stereotyped of the world’s advertising. The history and development of advertising in the globalization era depends on international business interests. In this kind of situation, consumers are seen to have a homogeneous cultural background, that is, global culture. So what will become of the existence of local culture as the nation character? Indonesia’s advertising should actually dig this kind of locality to produce advertising creative ideas that are not to be trapped in global stereotypes as are happening now. “As we are in our own territory, we know the way to better communicate with our own people; this way we have no reason to lose” .
Besides the problem of globalization, the face of Indonesia’s advertising is affected by nation-specific problems. Advertising activities are still concentrated in big cities, following the national economy boom and media industry still centralized there, for example, Jakarta. Although there are good signs of the rise of regional advertising agencies, they are not yet significant to indicate the progress of national-level advertising. Ironically, the majority of Indonesians live in villages, the consequence being that a large portion of advertising spending has to be covered by the minority in big cities especially in Java. The next problem is that there is a big gap between the purchasing power and intellectuality of the rich and that of the poor. This certainly creates a different kind of portrait of Indonesia’s advertising.
From this portrait emerges a real problem to face Indonesia’s advertising. At least from the perspective of institution and product of the institution, we face low quality of Indonesia’s advertising.
3. ANALYSIS OF PROBLEM 1: INDONESIA’S ADVERTISING AGENCIES
Research  reveals that corporate culture of some of Indonesia’s advertising agencies comprising such variables as company values, cultural network, business environment, rituals, and figures simply adopts that of the multinational advertising company they are affiliated with. Ideally, the practice of affiliation facilitates the making of geographical sub-culture, that is, a new culture resulting from the geographical location where the respective company operates and influences community norms in a country such as Indonesia. Further, the dynamics of change caused by merger and acquisition at the world level also affects the patterns and behaviors of Indonesia’s advertising, including the creative performance of the advertising designers. This kind of stereotypes of Indonesia’s advertising may create an undefined work performance: working in a system of values, identity, and culture that are not our own.
It is identified that the corporate culture of advertising agencies in Indonesia is strongly socialized and imparted to the employees by the division heads through various organizational rituals both in a(n) formal and informal way. Knowledge of culture, set of models, and meaning system are all intertwined in the organization symbols and transmitted in a professional way as an adaptive strategy in an attempt to run the advertising business. But the implementation of the corporate culture of the advertising agencies only affirms that of the company they are affiliated with without the accommodation of local values which could actually later show the true identity of Indonesia’s advertising agencies. Self-identity should not be made secondary, or subordinate to other things. Self-identity emerges out of a consistent way of thinking, behaving, and acting. And this must be started.
Low confidence on the part of Indonesia’s advertising figures causes them to choose a shortcut and thus employs expatriates. This low confidence creates dependence. Dependence in turn creates a low bargaining position of Indonesia’s advertising against its affiliates. The shortcut is taken only to achieve the short term goal of gaining the most possible profit in the shortest possible time. Apparently advertising spending that sky-rockets form year to year spoils Indonesia’s advertising agencies and makes them abandon professionalism in advertising. To seek comfort in the shortage of qualified local resources, it seems more profitable to turn to and recruit foreign resources especially from India and the Philippines as they are willing to be paid with the local pay scheme. These expatriates are made the spearheads to gain a huge advertising budget from the advertisers. Another shortcut which jeopardizes the progress of local resources in advertising is the utilization of joint contracts with foreign resources only to increase the image of Indonesia’s advertising agencies so that they will look qualified and win multinational advertisers. For this purpose, respective advertising agencies spend a huge amount of money following the pay scheme of the country from which the foreign workers come.
Like 2 sides of a coin, apparently Indonesia’s advertisers of either national or multinational level tend to trust their advertising to the national advertising agencies which are affiliated with multinational advertising agencies of better quality and qualification as they are socialized to be supported by experts and multinational management system. This is not entirely true; there are some advertising agencies which position themselves as national but prove to be of good quality. This is proven by their winning some awards for their creativity in the advertising contest.
(Laporan akhir studi; oleh seorang mahasiswi UNPAR yang belajar tentang media di Jerman; layanan proofreading)
Terrorism and Media
Terrorism is intended to influence local and international political processes. Therefore, influencing public opinions is a vital means for terrorists. The most efficient means to influence the political processes is through mass media, which consciously and unconsciously cooperate with terrorist organizations. The media’s main myth about themselves is that news worthiness/news value, competition, objectivity, time frameworks, and pressures guide them. However, the media’s self-perception permits them to explain away, or ignore, implications of their impact on the agenda of public discourse. A terrorist organization is a public entrepreneur; it fights for its case to be heard, well-perceived and understood. The terrorist organization’s thirst for public recognition can be achieved through pseudo events, such as press conferences and interviews, and orchestrated gory events that attract the media’s attention. Modern leaders have to understand the media in order to improve their operations against terrorism and overcome media’s tendency to describe the terrorists in a positive terminology.
Terror has been present and manifest in our lives as a scourge, a viral monster that is vicious and frightening at times and cannot be expected to embody the “tempest of national and global scale”, including to realize the tragedy of humanity, the dignity of the nation’s castration, and submission of the big tragedies of people’s human rights. Human rights lose their existence and are deprived of sanctity at the hands of the manufacturer who has created a form of animalistic savagery of social, political, cultural, and economic aspects. Terror is a word that means trying to create fear, horror and cruelty by a person, group or class (Justice Forum, 29 November 2002). But when the terror has come incarnate in many forms, it is thus familiar with the ways of human life that fills the agenda of the history of human barbarity.
Terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 by way of civil aircraft slammed with a target of two main buildings, the WTC and the Pentagon in the U.S. become the worst human tragedy of this century. Although the events are long gone, it will remain and continue to be recorded by history as part of the evil in the world (global crime) on the survival of modern human life. Modern man who positions himself as an educated human being must accept the tragic reality of the atrocities that should be classified into, from and perhaps already in the “home alone.”
Bombings of the Sari Club and Peddy’s Club Legian Kuta Bali on October 12, 2002 are classified as a terror that deserves the label of the worst crime in Indonesia in a series of terror there. Tragedy is a clear proof that terror is a very heinous act that does not take into account, does not care, and does not respect the true human values. Public draw a red thread that the Bali tragedy and the case of the WTC United States are the products of the movement of destructive terrorist groups that threaten global peace, destroy the values of civilization, and degrade human rights.
The phenomenon of terrorism today is really a big part of the scourge to the country of Indonesia, in addition to the world or the international community. Terrorism is a modern phenomenon and has been the focus of attention of various international organizations, various groups, and countries. The case of bomb blast at the JW Marriot on August 5, 2003 which killed dozens of people and injured more people also confirms that the issue of terror must be classified as a serious threat to the nation and the world.
Their depiction of the so-called symbiosis between terrorists and the news media is a critical theme of media-terrorism research and practice. Some researchers claim that there would be no terrorism if the media did not deliver their messages. On the other hand, war on terrorism has to be won without disproportionally losing freedom; i.e., as in every war, democracy that has to make some temporary concessions of civil and political rights in order to preserve freedom and security justifies the harsh means applied throughout that war. Freedom and security are worth it and deserve such sacrifices.
In this paper, I will focus on the investigation of media-terrorism relations in a comparative international, inter-cultural approach. The title is the role of media in reporting terrorism cases, a case study of Kompas Daily. I also adopt a functionalism perspective, obtained from Talcott Parson.
Research question: How does Kompas Daily conduct its reporting—this including strategies, positioning techniques, formulating, running, and controlling its strategies that will lead to consistency, generality, stability and unity of the news reporting?
Newspaper as a Mainstream Media
The concept of mass media is intended to designate the mass media of communication with an audience that includes in it the print media (newspapers, magazines, and books), microphones, films, radio broadcasts, and television (DeFleur & Dennis, 1985:12). The mass media in this context includes not only mechanical means or device which is used as a communication medium, but included in it is an institution that uses the instrumental devices to convey their messages (Dominick, 1999:25).
Newspaper is intended to appoint a legal institution with organizational instrumental device used to produce the information in the form of printed matter delivered for sociocultural, commercial, or both purposes.
Jefferson’s view of the newspaper is that it serves as an observer of society, the interpreter state of society, community liaison, disseminator of cultural values, the circulation of information to the public, and public entertainer (Dominick, 1996:33). Information from the newspaper makes sure that the reality of the world can be understood, conceptualized, and communicated (Blakar, 1987:350). The implication is that the flow of information with the direction and level of certain flow can also potentially cause anxiety and great fear in some people (Berger, 1998:163). This is because on the one hand, the exchange of information is potentially powerful to make us follow the behavior of others in addition to changing attitudes and behavior of others (Book, 1980:8). Information as a product of cultural needs, on the other hand, is one product that is controlled by the capitalist as economical production control requirements (Dominick, 1996:50). Agenda setting in which mass media editors select and set a specific topic to encourage certain perception in the reading public, therefore, becomes inevitable.
Journalism is the discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying, and presenting information regarding current events, trends, issues, and people. The central purpose of journalism is also to provide citizens with accurate and reliable information that they need to function in a free society. This encompasses myriad roles—helping define community, creating common language and common knowledge, identifying a community’s goals, heroes and villains, and pushing people beyond complacency. This purpose also involves other requirements, such as being entertaining, serving as a watchdog, and offering voice to the voiceless. Over time journalists have developed nine core principles to meet the task. They comprise what might be described as the theory of political communication derived from Excellence Journalism, as follows:
1. Journalism’s First Obligation is to Tell The Truth
Democracy depends on citizens having reliable, accurate facts put in a meaningful context. Journalism does not pursue truth in an absolute or philosophical sense, but it can—and must—pursue it in a practical sense. This “journalistic truth” is a process that begins with the professional discipline of assembling and verifying facts. Then journalists try to convey a fair and reliable account of their meaning, valid for now, subject to further investigation. Journalists should be as transparent as possible about sources and methods so that audience can make their own assessment of the information.
2. The Essence is Discipline of Verification
Journalists rely on a professional discipline for verifying information. When the concept of objectivity originally evolved, it did not imply that journalists are free of biases. It called, rather, for a consistent method of testing information—a transparent approach to evidence—precisely so that personal and cultural biases would not undermine the accuracy of their work. The method is objective, not the journalist. Seeking out multiple witnesses, disclosing as much about sources as possible, or asking various sides for comment all signal such standards. This discipline of verification is what separates journalism from other modes of communication, such as propaganda, fiction or entertainment. But the need for professional method is not always fully recognized or refined. While journalism has developed various techniques for determining facts, for instance, it has done less to develop a system for testing the reliability of journalistic interpretation.
3. They Must Strive to Make Significant Information Interesting and Relevant
Journalism is storytelling with a purpose. It should do more than gathering an audience or cataloging important information. For its own survival, it must balance what readers know they want with what they cannot anticipate but need. In short, it must strive to make significant information interesting and relevant. The effectiveness of a piece of journalism is measured both by how much a work engages its audience and enlightens it. This means journalists must continually ask what information has the most value to citizens and in what form too it has to be packaged. While journalism should reach beyond such topics as government and public safety, journalism overwhelmed by trivia and false significance ultimately engenders a trivial society.
The Media in Legal Perspective
Before I explain more methodologically the media coverage, the first thing we should examine is the legal perspective of media practice in Indonesia. Controlling communications may have become more political and military elite yearn. Whichever they may turn, they find a media prepared to criticize the ruling elite, often in terms that shock and awe. In the new media that are free for all, competition has become acute, leading not only to greater quality, but also to more sensationalism (Woodier, 2009:55). In addition, the limited resources of the local media has encouraged the spread of corruption, intimidation, and influence from regional and national political forces. The significant growth of the media since 1998 has not been matched by the investment in training or development of a widespread culture of journalistic professionalism (Scarpello, 2002).
The function and role of the press under the terms of Article 33 of Law no. 40 of 1999 on the press is as a medium of information, education, entertainment and social control. Similarly, article 6 of the Press Law asserts that the national press carry out the role as follows: meeting the public’s right to know, strengthening basic values of democracy, promoting the upholding of the rule of law and human rights, and respecting the diversity of public opinion-based information to develop appropriate, accurate, and correct conduct surveillance, criticism, corrections, and suggestions on matters relating to the common interests of justice and righteousness based on the function and role of the press. The institution of the press is often referred to as the fourth pillar of democracy (the fourth estate) after the legislative, executive, and judiciary, as well as one that forms public opinion in the most potent and effective way. The new role function that the press assume can be run optimally if there is a guarantee of freedom of the press from government. According to a prominent press figure, Jakob Oetama, freedom of the press becomes the press absolute requirement in order to perform its role optimally. It’s hard to imagine how the role of the press can be run if there is no guarantee of freedom of the press. The New Order government in Indonesia was the regime that severely restricted freedom of the press.
(Teks sains untuk software pendidikan; oleh sebuah perusahaan pembuat software pendidikan; layanan proofreading dan narrating)
|1||Acid solution, base and salt||Our first material is about acid solution, base and salt.Now, please click on the lesson menu icon on the left.|
|2||The properties of acid, base and salt||For an explanation about the content of the material properties of acid, base and salt, please select one of the following material menus.|
|3||Acid||What is acid? Acid is a substance which in water releases hydrogen ions (H +) so that the chemical formula of acid always contains hydrogen atoms.Also see the text menu.|
|4||Base||Base is a compound which when dissolved in water (solution) can release hydroxide ion (OH).For an explanation of this material, you can see the text menu on the upper left.
Let us move on again to the next material menu.
|5||Salt||Please look at animated image below; surely you can find out what salt means.For more details, let’s choose another material menu.|
|6||Acid solution, base and salt are electrolytic||Substances are soluble in water and can form a solution which conducts electricity. This is called an electrolyte solution. An example is kitchen salt and chloride acid solution.The explanation is available in the text menu on the top left. That explanation of acid, base and salt is quite easy, right?|
|7||Identification of acid, base and salt||Friends, now we will continue with material of acid, base and salt identification.Please select one of the available material menus on the left to continue.|
|8||Identification with litmus paper||Litmus paper color in acid, base and neutral solution is different. In order for you to know more, please choose the text menu on the upper left. And don’t forget to choose the next material menu.|